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Two hydrogen atoms are moved from the center CO group to the CO group on the end. Ready To Place An Order? LOGIN TO POST ANSWER. The product of this reaction is a two-carbon molecule called acetyl-CoA. These changes are marked in red in the above diagram. Solution : The product of this reaction is two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA). Order Your Homework Today! b. Oxaloacetate. If you remove the phosphate group, the glyceraldehyde has a chemical composition of C3O3H6. The CO2 molecule bonds to the 2nd carbon, which causes it to change it's double bond with the 3rd carbon to a single bond. We now have six Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) molecules. Step 5: Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate dehydro-genase reduces (donates electrons to) BPG using electrons from NADPH. (c) Carboxylation 22 pages. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology with Answers were prepared based on the latest exam pattern. Once two extra GAP molecules are created, they are combined into fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) using steps 6-8 of the Calvin Cycle. Explanation: We have over 1500 academic writers ready and waiting to help you achieve academic success. READ: Can Photosynthesis Occur Without Oxygen? The Calvin cycle, Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle, reductive pentose phosphate cycle (RPP cycle) or C3 cycle is a series of biochemical redox reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. cycle of chemical reactions performed by plants to “fix” carbon from CO2 into three-carbon sugars In the next section we'll transform our six molecules of PGA into six molecules of GAP. C4 photosynthesis is an adaption to hot, dry conditions in which. 7. (c) Chlorophyll b The FBP molecule has the same atomic content as the GAP and DHAP molecules combined (no atoms or charges added or lost in the conversion, and no net energy consumed). (c) NAD Others call it the Calvin-Benson cycle to include the name of another scientist involved in its discovery (Figure 1). Steps 1-3 are known as the Carbon Fixation part of the Calvin Cycle, while steps 4-5 are the Reduction section. (a) RuBP Photosynthesis refers to the carbohydrate-creating processes that take place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, and is divided into the light-dependent and light-independent processes. (d) increase in carbohydrate, Answer: (a) ratio of oxygen evolved to carbon dioxide absorbed, Question 11. (a) two distinct photochemical reactions Sample test for ch4,5,6.docx. (c) Blackman The Calvin Cycle converts three water and three carbon dioxide molecules into one molecule of glyceraldehyde. Step 4: The enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase phosphorylates the six molecules of 3-phospho-glycerate (PGA), using six molecules of ATP. We've consumed three molecules each of RuBP, CO2 and H2O, plus six ATP and six NADPH molecules. (b) Ruben The end product of the Calvin cycle is _____. Answer: (a) RuBP. CO2 is fixed and stored in the leaf. (a) Calvin That's where the energy from the nine ATP and six NADPH molecules went. The added phosphate group is shown in red. Five of the six GAP molecules are recycled in steps 6-15 to regenerate the original three RuBP molecules. Light reactions of photosynthesis occurs in However, additional GAP molecules that are formed will be converted to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), which is responsible for the conversion of CO2 to 3-PGA in phase 1, via numerous steps. Manganese is required in The rate of photosynthesis is controlled by Five of these are needed to regenerate the original three RuBP molecules, which completes one turn of the Calvin Cycle. Light reactions of photosynthesis occurs in grana. (b) Fixation The sixth GAP molecule is extra. (c) Chloroplasts Products. Answer. (d) Phosphoenolpyruvate, Question 18. Step 15: Phosphoribulokinase uses three ATP to phosphorylate three Ru5P into three RuBP molecules. (b) light and dark reactions of photosynthesis The Calvin Cycle. Science. Here is a look at the redox reactions that occur during the Calvin cycle. The actual fixation of carbon dioxide, which diffuses into the leaf from the atmosphere, occurs by a cyclic series of reactions called the Calvin cycle (named after one of the pioneer researchers in this area) A summary of the Calvin cycle … (d) Golgi apparatus, Question 14. In a chloroplast, the Thylakoid is the equivalent of an organelle in the larger cell (outside the chloroplast), while the Stroma is the equivalent of the cytosol. need from the end product of the Calvin cycle, which is. The primary carbon dioxide acceptor in C4 cycle is (a) malic acid (b) phosphoenol pyruvate (c) rubisco (d) aspartic acid. This is the same chemical content found in three molecules of water and three molecules of carbon dioxide, with six extra oxygen atoms. This combination creates a 6-carbon beta-keto molecule out of the 5-carbon RuBP and 1-carbon (CO2) molecules. Answer. The Calvin cycle is named after Melvin C. Calvin, who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry for finding it in 1961. The Calvin Cycle. Answer: (b) phosphoenol pyruvate Solution : The process shown in the Steps 4 and 5 diagram (below) will be repeated six times, once for each molecule. Carbon dioxide joins with organic molecules to produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The end product of the Calvin cycle reactions is A glucos e B glyceraldehyde 3; South Texas College; BIO 2402 - Spring 2011. Notice that in both CO2 and H2O, all of the bonds are either C-O or H-O. F6P is the raw material used by plants in the creation of sucrose and starch. TutorsOnSpot.com. That's why the flowchart of the entire Calvin Cycle (at the top of this page) has three carbon-dioxide molecules going in, with six molecules of PGA being produced, while the descriptions here and in the Steps 1 through 3 diagram have a single CO2 molecule going in, and only two PGA molecules coming out. This brings us back to where we started in step 1, which completes the Calvin cycle. Calvin Cycle. (b) phosphoenol pyruvate Question 17. We've consumed three molecules each of RuBP, CO2 and H2O, plus six ATP and six NADPH molecules. Ready To Place An Order? The end product of the Calvin cycle is. They occur automatically in water as hydrogen atoms make and break bonds due to normal thermal activity. Carbon dioxide is incorporated into a 5 carbon sugar, RuBP, which immediately forms two molecules of 3-PGA. D. RuBP carboxylase. It was created by running through steps 1-5 of the Calvin Cycle three times. (d) mineral salt, Question 10. This ADP and NADP+ formed in the dark reaction are used for the RuBP regeneration to continue the cycle. The products of the Calvin cycle are exported from the chloroplast to provide energy for cellular respiration, and organic carbon for biosynthetic pathways to construct all the building blocks for cellular molecules. The reduction process removes a PO4 phosphate group from each molecule of BPG to create the GAP molecules. (d) ATP is a Co-enzyme, Question 16. The Calvin cycle is what creates the ultimate end-product of photosynthesis: sugars. (a) C3 plants The stroma refers to the stack of thylakoid membrane structures. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight.. A ) RuBP ( b ) phosphoenol pyruvate Solution: the Calvin cycle produces 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ( G3P ),.: Chlorophyll a ( c ) ribulose biphosphate ( d ) ADP + NADP spots on both the blue carbon... 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